United Nations              
Non-contributory Social Protection Programmes Database
Latin America and the Caribbean
Oportunidades (Human Development Programme, formerly “Progresa“) (1997-2014)
Mexico

 

 

Date: 1997-2014
Web: Official website of the programme
Description: Conditional transfer programme (CCT), one of the most important in the region. It started in 1997 with the name Progresa (Education, Health and Nutrition) and attended rural areas only. In 2001, it changed to the current name and began its expansion into semi-urban and urban areas. That year changes were made ​​to the management of the programme and new benefits were added. Since its inception, it has been one of the programmes with more impact evaluation reports in several areas. In recent years new cash transfers have been incorporated, such as the energy support, the elderly and food support "vivir mejor". The main aim of these transfers is to alleviate consequences of the crisis on families budgets caused by international food prices rising. From 2010, the programme operates the Food Support Programme (PAL), which embraces all the food supports.
   

Characteristics

Target population: Households below the food poverty line
Geographic scale: National
Targeting method: 1) Geographic: Index of social backwardness - Coneval; Marginalization index - Conapo
2) Proxy means test
3) Community
Instrument of selection: Single Socio-economic Data Questionnaire (CUIS)
Registry of recipients: Integrated Government Programme Registration System (SIIPP-G); Georeferenced data System
Exit strategies or criteria: The recertification was done every three years until 2012. Differentiated Support Scheme (EDA): Families are recertified on the sixth year of receiving support and then they pass to the EDA. In the EDA, they continue to receive support (except for food and educational support for children attending the elementary level) for another six years, after which they graduate from the programme. Since 2012, a new criteria is included for the selection of municipalities for recertification: a lower Social Backwardeness Indez (IRS); each municipality will be recertificated each 5 years; the temporality of the families who transit through the EDA, based on the integrants from 12 to 21 years old.
Comments: Transfers are subject to a biannual increase calculated according to the national consumer price index (CPI) of the basic basket, published by the Bank of Mexico.
For the selection of the areas to be covered by the programme, all the areas of the country are taken into account, taking as reference the index of social backwardness established by Coneval, and the deprivation index established by Conapo. * Since 2012, the criteria for updating the programme support was modified: The National Index of Consummer Prices published by the Bank of Mexico was replaced by the index associated to the (urban and rural) Minimum Welfare Lines publicated by CONEVAL.
Sanciones: Suspension of cash benefits when:
The recipient does not withdraw the benefit or does not perform account movements twice in a row in two or more consecutive bimonthly periods.
Cannot prove that the recipient is alive.
If the beneficiary family is subject to proceedings related to the custody of children.
If the members of the household present a dispute over the benefits of the programme.
If it is not possible to collect socioeconomic and demographic information for reasons attributable to the family.
The household does not allow verification of their socioeconomic and demographic status.
If any member of the household present false or altered documents or state a false position.
If any member of the household use the name of the programme for electoral, political, religious proselytizing or profit purposes
If it is detected a duplication of the family in the Beneficiaries Register.
   

Institutionality

Legal framework: Decree that creates the National Coordination of the Human Development Programme, Oportunidades. It is a decentralized agency of the Ministry of Social Development, with technical autonomy (March 2002)
Responsible organization(s): Ministry of Social Development (SEDESOL)
Executing organization(s): Coordinación Nacional del Programa de Desarrollo Humano (National Coordination of the Human Development Programme)
Source of funding: Government of Mexico, World Bank (WB)
   

1) Apoyo alimentario (Food Support)

Recipient(s): All beneficiary households of the programme.
Mode of transfer: Flat transfer
Mode of delivery: Cash withdrawal
Deposit in bank account
Periodicity of delivery: Bimonthly
Recipient of the transfer: Mother
Maximum per household: One transfer per household
Conditionalities: Health: Attendance at scheduled medical checks (for all household members, frequency differentiated according to age)
Food: Use food support for households benefit and consume nutritional supplements.
Others: attendance at health counseling.
Sanctions: Monthly suspension if the family does not attend health controls or counseling sessions. If the family does not withdraw food supplements or fortified milk, depending on the frequency with which service providers provide this information, In two consecutive bimesters. Permanent suspension if the recipient or other members of the household sell or exchange food supplements or fortified milk received from the programme.
Comments: Since 2012, the Energy Subsidy was fusioned with the Food Support
Amount : MN$ 315/monthly; see Data Excel Format

 

2) Apoyo útiles escolares (Support for school supplies)

Recipient(s): Families with children attending primary and secondary education
Mode of transfer: Transfer according to the characteristics of the beneficiary (increases according to the school grade attended)
Mode of delivery: Cash withdrawal
Deposit in bank account
Periodicity of delivery: Primary education: Twice a year, Secondary Education: Once a year.
Recipient of the transfer: Mother
Maximum per household: One transfer per household
Conditionalities: Education: 85% of school attendance
Comments: In schools attended by CONAFE transfer is in kind (school supplies)
Amount : minimum amount of MN$ 210 in the first delivery for year( the second is of MN$ 110) and maximum amount of MN$ 415 per year; see Selected figures

 

3) Apoyo educación (Education support)

Recipient(s): Families with children attending primary, secondary and upper-middle school
Mode of transfer: Transfer according to characteristics of the recipient (increases with school grade level and for women)
Mode of delivery: Cash withdrawal
Deposit in bank account
Periodicity of delivery: Bimonthly
Recipient of the transfer: Mother
Maximum per household: Limit depends on the number of transfers received by the household (see Selected figures)
Conditionalities: Education: School attendance (85% attendance).
Sanctions: Monthly suspension if students do not certify primary school attendance or if they accumulate a three-month suspension, or if they have 12 or more unexcused absences. For secondary school students if there is no certification of school attendance. Indefinite suspension if repeting the same course for the third time. Suspension is definitive if duplication of the beneficiary in the Integrated System of Registries is detected, if secondary school students have been receiving the state benefit for more than 4 years or drop out for two or more semesters, and if primary school students accumulate two annual suspensions because they have had 12 unjustified absences during the school year.
Amount : Minimum amount of MN$ 165/monthly and maximum of MN$ 1285; see Selected figures

 

4) Papilla (Baby food)

Recipient(s): 1) Children 4 to 23 months old
2) Children aged between 2 and 5 years with malnutrition
3) Pregnant / breastfeeding women (up to 1 year)
Conditionalities: Others: Health counseling sessions attendance
Description: Daily nutritional supplement presented in two versions "Nutrisano" and "Nutrivida". The baby food provides up to 100% of micronutrient required daily, and 20% of the average daily calorie needed. It is made in three different flavors.

 

5) Paquete básico de salud (Basic health package)

Recipient(s): All beneficiary households with members aged 15 years
Conditionalities: Health: Preventive medical check ups attendance
Other: Health counseling sessions attendance
Sanctions: Monetary support may be suspended indefinitely, if in two consecutive semesters the household does not justify the health actions recorded in the National Health Card of all household members
Description: Health care package that contains 13 free access services specifically targeted to pregnant and breastfeeding women and children under 5 years. It includes: Basic sanitation at the household level, family planning, prenatal care, childbirth and postpartum and newborn, nutritional surveillance and child growth monitoring, immunization, handling cases of diarrhea at home; deworming, care of acute respiratory infections, prevention and control of tuberculosis, prevention and control of hypertension and diabetes, prevention of accidents and initial care of injuries; community training for self-care, prevention and detection of cervical -cancer.
Includes promotional activities (training for self-care, information, guidance and counseling)

 

6) Jóvenes con oportunidades (Youth with opportunities education grant)

Recipient(s): Students between 3rd year of junior high school and 4th year of high school
Mode of delivery: Deposit in bank account
Periodicity of delivery: At the conclusion of high school
Recipient of the transfer: Student
Conditionalities: Youth must be active beneficiary of the Oportunidades programme and end high school before age 22
Sanctions: The beneficiaries that decide to reenrollment on a high school system, will not have the right to receive a new transfer.
Comments: Established in 2003
Description: The cash transfer is paid through a bank account for each year of upper-middle school approved and can be withdrawn at the end of the school.
Amount : MN$ 4.599 and MN$ 5.956 (in the urban model) once at the conclusion of high school; see Selected figures

 

7) Apoyo energético (Energy subsidy)

Recipient(s): All beneficiary households of the programme
Mode of transfer: Flat transfer
Mode of delivery: Cash withdrawal
Deposit in bank account
Periodicity of delivery: Bimonthly
Recipient of the transfer: Mother
Maximum per household: One transfer per household
Conditionalities: Others: Health counseling sessions attendance
Sanctions: Monthly suspension if the family does not attend health controls or counseling sessions.
Comments: Established in 2007. Since 2012, the Energy Subsidy was fusioned with the Food Support

 

8) Apoyo adultos mayores (Elderly support)

Recipient(s): Adults over 70 years of age
Mode of transfer: Flat transfer
Mode of delivery: Cash withdrawal
Deposit in bank account
Periodicity of delivery: Bimonthly
Recipient of the transfer: Direct beneficiary
Maximum per household: Limit amount by the number of transfers received by the household (see Selected Figures)
Conditionalities: Health: Assistance to health controls every 6 months
Sanctions: Definitive suspension if not attending health check-ups for two or more consecutive semesters, if beneficiary of the "70 and over" pension, household abandonment, and death of the recipient.
Comments: Established in 2006. Incompatible with the "70 and over" programme.
Amount : MN$ 345/monthly; see Data Excel format

 

9) “Vivir mejor“ food support component

Recipient(s): All beneficiary households of the programme
Mode of transfer: Flat transfer
Mode of delivery: Cash withdrawal
Deposit in bank account
Periodicity of delivery: Bimonthly
Recipient of the transfer: Mother
Maximum per household: One transfer per household
Conditionalities: Food: Use food support for household`s benefit and consume nutritional supplements.
Health: Health counseling sessions attendance
Sanctions: Monthly suspension if the family does not attend health controls or counseling sessions. If the family does not withdraw food supplements or fortified milk, depending on the frequency with which service providers provide this information. Definitive suspension in case of food supplements sale
Comments: Established in 2008, and consists on a temporary assistance to face the rising worldwide food prices. Since 2010, it operates through the Food Support Programme (PAL)
Amount : MN$ 130/monthly; see Selected figures

 

10) “Vivir mejor“ child support component

Recipient(s): Children between 0 and 9 years
Mode of transfer: Flat transfer
Mode of delivery: Cash withdrawal
Deposit in bank account
Periodicity of delivery: Bimonthly
Recipient of the transfer: Mother
Maximum per household: One transfer per household
Conditionalities: Food: Targeting benefits for household food and nutritional supplements consumed
Identification: Birth certificate
Education: School enrollment
Sanctions: Monthly suspension if the household does not attend health controls or counseling sessions. Definitive suspension if the child is a beneficiary of educational support component of Oportunidades and in case of sale of dietary supplements.
Comments: Operated through the Food Support Program (PAL)
Amount : MN$ 115/monthly with a maximum of thre supports per households (MN$ 345); see Selected figures

 

Family Networks and School Enrolment: Evidence from a Randomized Social Experiment

Author: Angelucci, M., De Giorgi, G., Rangel, M., and Rasul, I.
Date: 2009
Publication info: NBER Working Papers 14949, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Long-Term Impacts of the Oportunidades Conditional Cash Transfer Program on Rural Youth in Mexico

Author: Behrman, J., Parker, S. y Todd, P.
Date: 2005
Publication info: Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 122, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Conditional cash transfers, adult work incentives, and poverty

Author: Skoufias, E. and Di Maro, V.
Date: 2006
Publication info: The Journal of Development Studies, vol. 44, N° 7, Abingdon, Taylor and Francis. The Journal of Development Studies, vol. 44, N° 7, Abingdon, Taylor and Francis. The Journal of Development Studies, vol. 44, N° 7, Abingdon, Taylor and Francis
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Can conditional transfer programs improve social risk management? Lessons for education and child labor outcomes

Author: Sadoulet, E., Finan, F. y Janvry, A.
Date: 2004
Publication info: SP Discussion Paper, N° 0420, Washington, D.C., The World Bank
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Evaluation model and child protection impact

 

Final report: the impact of PROGRESA on work, leisure, and time allocation

Author: Parker, S. and Skoufias, E.
Date: 2000
Publication info: Washington, D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) [online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Are conditional cash transfers associated with lower labor supply? Evidence from Mexico’s Oportunidades over the period 2000-2010

Author: Bosch, M., Stampini, M. y Bedoya, G.
Date: 2012
Publication info: Technical Note, N° 497, Washington, D.C., Interamerican Development Bank, december
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation and changes in labour market

 

Liquidity, risk and occupational choices

Author: Bianchi, M. and Bobba, M.
Date: 2010
Publication info: The Review of Economic Studies, vol. 80, N° 2, Oxford, Oxford University Press, april
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Do conditional cash transfers for schooling generate lasting benefits? A five-year follow-up of PROGRESA/Oportunidades

Author: Behrman, J., Parker, S. y Todd, P.
Date: 2011
Publication info: Journal of Human Resources, vol 46, N° 1, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press.
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

The impact of the PROGRESA/Oportunidades conditional cash transfer program on health and related outcomes for the aging in Mexico

Author: Behrman, J. y Parker, S.
Date: 2011
Publication info: PIER Working Paper, N° 11-032, Filadelfia, Penn Institute for Economic Research (PIER), october
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Imapct evaluation

 

Do Conditional Cash Transfers Improve Economic Outcomes in the Next Generation? Evidence from Mexico

Author: Parker, S. and Vogl, T.
Date: 2018
Publication info: NBER Working Paper No. 24303
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact Evaluation

 

Do CCTs improve employment and earnings in the very long-term? Evidence from Mexico

Author: Kugler, A. and Rojas, I.
Date: 2018
Publication info: NBER Working Paper No. 24248
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact Evaluation

 

Do Conditional Cash Transfers Influence Migration? A Study Using Experimental Data from the Mexican Progresa Program

Author: Stecklov, G., Winters, P., Stampini, M. and Davis, B.
Date: 2005
Publication info: Demography, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Nov., 2005), pp. 769-790
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact Evaluation on migration

 

Debunking the Stereotype of the Lazy Welfare Recipient: Evidence from Cash Transfer Programs

Author: Banerjee et al.
Date: 2017
Publication info: The World Bank Research Observer, vol. 32, no. 2 (August 2017)
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

What are the economic impacts of conditional cash transfer programmes? A systematic review of the evidence

Author: Kabeer, N., Piza, C. and Taylor, L.
Date: 2012
Publication info: Technical Report 2013, Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre (EPPICentre)
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact Evaluation

 

Welfare programs and labor supply in developing countries: experimental evidence from Latin America

Author: Alzúa, M.L., Cruces, G. and Ripani, L.
Date: 2012
Publication info: Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 26, No. 4 (October 2013), pp. 1255-1284
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

The Impacts of Cash and In-Kind Transfers on Consumption and Labor Supply. Experimental Evidence from Rural Mexico

Author: Skoufias, E., Unar, M. and González-Cossío, T.
Date: 2008
Publication info: Policy Research Working Paper 4778, World Bank
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Informality and the expansion of social protection programs: Evidence from Mexico

Author: Azuara, O. and Marinescu, I.
Date: 2013
Publication info: Journal of Health Economics 32 (2013) 938–950
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Labor Market Equilibrium Effects of Cash Transfers. Evidence from a Structural Model and a Randomized Experiment

Author: Lehmann, M. C.
Date: 2014
Publication info: ANPEC Encontro 2014 [online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Cash transfer programmes, poverty reduction and women’s economic empowerment: Experience from Mexico

Author: Mónica E. Orozco Corona and Sarah Gammage
Date: 2017
Publication info: ILO Working paper No. 1/2017
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation on female impowerment

 

Conditional Cash Transfers: The Case of Progresa/Oportunidades

Author: Parker, S. and Todd, P.
Date: 2017
Publication info: Journal of Economic Literature 2017, 55(3), 866–915 from American Economic Association
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

10-year eff ect of Oportunidades, Mexico’s conditional cash transfer programme, on child growth, cognition, language, and behaviour: a longitudinal follow-up study

Author: Fernald, L., Gertler, P., and Neufeld, L.
Date: 2009
Publication info: The Lancet, Vol. 374, pp. 1997-2005
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Do Conditional Cash Transfers Improve Child Health? Evidence from PROGRESA's ControlRandomized Experiment

Author: Gertler, P.
Date: 2004
Publication info: The American Economic Review, Vol. 94, No. 2, pp. 336-341.
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Conditional cash transfers, female bargaining power and parental labour supply

Author: Novella, R., Ripani, L., Cruces, G., and Alzúa, M.
Date: 2012
Publication info: IDB Working paper No. IDB-WP-368
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Intrahousehold time allocation in rural Mexico. Evidence from a randomized experiment

Author: Rubio-Codina, M.
Date: 2009
Publication info: IFS Discussion Paper
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Can conditional cash transfer programs improve social risk management? Lessons for education and child labor outcomes

Author: Sadoulet, E., Finan, F., de Janvry, A., and Vakis, R.
Date: 2004
Publication info: Discussion Paper of the World Bank No. 0420
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

An Evaluation of the Performance of Regression Discontinuity Design on PROGRESA

Author: Buddelmeyer, H., and Skoufias, E.
Date: 2003
Publication info: IZA DP No. 827
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

School subsidies for the poor: evaluating the Mexican Progresa poverty program

Author: Schultz, T. P.
Date: 2004
Publication info: Journal of Development Economics. Volume 74, Issue 1, Pp. 199–250
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Are conditional cash transfers effective in urban areas? Evidence from Mexico

Author: Behrman, J., Gallardo-Garcia, J., Parker, S., Todd, P., and Velez-Grajales, V.
Date: 2011
Publication info: PIER Working paper No. 11-024
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

The Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs on Indigenous Households in Latin America. Evidence from PROGRESA in Mexico

Author: Quiñones, E.
Date: February 2016
Publication info:
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact Evaluation

 

Conditional Cash Transfers and their impact on child work and schooling: evidence from the Progresa program in Mexico

Author: Skoufias, Emmanuel and Parker, Susan
Date: 2001
Publication info: FCND Discussion Paper No 123, IFPRI
Link:
Topic: Child labour

 

rom Universalism to Targeting and Back Again: Conditional Cash Transfer and the Developments of Social Citizenship

Author: Roberts Bryan
Date: 2012
Publication info: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, One pager No 178[online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: General information

 

Oportunidades and Bolsa Familia: a Comparative Perspective of their Evolution

Author: Veras Soares Fábio
Date: 2012
Publication info: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, One pager No 177[online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: General information

 

Replicating a Conditional Cash Transfer Programme: Reflections Based on the Experience of the Oportunidades Programme

Author: Yaschine Iliana
Date: 2012
Publication info: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, One pager No 176[online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: General information

 

The Life Development of Young People Engaged in the Oportunidades Programme

Author: Sánchez Lopéz Gabriela and Jiménez Rodriguéz Daniela
Date: 2012
Publication info: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, One pager No 175 [online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: General information

 

School Achievement and the Labour Market Insertion of Young Beneficiaries of the Oportunidades Programme

Author: Gonzáles de la Rocha Mercedes
Date: 2012
Publication info: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, One pager No 174 [online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact on Education and Labour insertion

 

Ethnicity as a Prerequisite for Inclusion in Conditional Transfer Programmes: The Opportunities Programme in Mexico

Author: Sarlego Juan Luis
Date: 2012
Publication info: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, One pager No 173 [online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: General information

 

The Social Production of Conditional Cash Transfers` Impacts

Author: Agudo Sanchíz Alejandro
Date: 2012
Publication info: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, One pager No 172 [online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: General information

 

Public Policy and Society: Two Essential Mediating Factors for Conditional Transfer Programmes

Author: Escobar Latapí Agustín
Date: 2012
Publication info: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, One pager No 171 [online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: General information

 

Poverty, Family Dynamics and Oportunidades: an Evolutionary Perspective

Author: Gonzáles de la Rocha Mercedes
Date: 2012
Publication info: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, One pager No 170 [online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact on poverty and family.

 

Progresa as a Response to the 1994 Crisis

Author: Cortés Fernando and Rubalcaba Rosa María
Date: 2012
Publication info: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, One pager No 169 [online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: General Information

 

The demand for food of poor urban Mexican households: understanding policy impacts using structural models

Author: Angelucci, M. y Attanasio, O.
Date: 2011
Publication info: [on line]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: impact on food consumption

 

The impact of Oportunidades on consumption, savings and transfers

Author: Angelucci, M., Attanasio, O. and Di Maro, V.
Date: 2011
Publication info: [on line]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: impact on saving and consumption

 

Better coating for the silver bullet: Improving conditional cash transfers in Urban Mexico

Author: Attanasio, O., Meghir, C., Santiago, A. and Shephard, A.
Date: 2008
Publication info: [on line]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: impact on education

 

Using randomised experiments and structural models for "scaling up": evidence from the Progresa evaluation

Author: Attanasio, O., Meghir, C. y Szekely, M.
Date: 2003
Publication info: The Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) [on line]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: evaluation model

 

Education choices in Mexico: using a structural model and randomized experiment to evaluate Progresa

Author: Attanasio, O., Meghir, C. and Santiago, A.
Date: 2011
Publication info: Review of Economic Studies [on line]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: impact on education

 

Evaluation for Program Decision Making: a case study of the Oportunidades Program in Mexico

Author: Neufeld, L., Steta, C., Rivera, J., Martínez, A., Grados, R., Urriega, S. and López, V.H.
Date: 2011
Publication info: The Journal of Nutrition, American Society of Nutrition [on line]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: impact on childhood nutrition

 

Evaluación externa de impacto del programa Oportunidades

Author: Hernández, Bernardo and Mauricio Hernández (eds.)
Date: 2004
Publication info: 2 volumes. México,D.F.: CIESAS/INSP
Link:
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Sin herencia de pobreza. El programa Progresa - Oportunidades de México

Author: Levy, Santiago and Evelyne Rodríguez
Date: 2005
Publication info: Washington D.C. IDB and ed. Planeta [online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: General information/Evaluation

 

México: el programa de desarrollo humano Oportunidades en Transferencias con corresponsabilidad. Una mirada latinoamericana, E. Cohen y R. Franco (coords.)

Author: Cohen, Ernesto, Rolando Franco and Pablo Villatoro
Date: 2006
Publication info: Mexico, FLACSO/SEDESOL [online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: General information

 

Los programas de alivio a la pobreza Puente y Oportunidades. Una mirada desde los actores

Author: Arriagada, Irma and Charlotte Mathivet
Date: 2007
Publication info: Serie políticas sociales (134), Santiago. ECLAC [online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Evaluation

 

Publicaciones programa oportunidades

Author: VVAA
Date: n/d
Publication info: website [en línea]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Collection of documents

 

 

 

Cooperation with:


 
© United Nations - ECLAC - Social Development Division