United Nations              
Non-contributory Social Protection Programmes Database
Latin America and the Caribbean
Bono de Desarrollo Humano (Human Development Grant) (2003-)
Ecuador

 

 

Date: 2003-
Web: Official website of the programme
Description: Conditional cash transfer programme (CCT), successor to the Bono Solidario. The programme includes conditionalities for the transfer to the households, but these have not been controlled. Is part of the " Social Protection Program" (PPS) of the Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion (MIES). It is linked to micro-credit programs and vocational training ("Crédito Productivo Solidario") and also protects against emergencies and natural disasters ("Bono de Emergencia" programme). The programme includes to families with children aged lower than 16 years, elderly and people living with disabilities. The cash transfers are delivered via a private bank network.
   

Characteristics

Target population: Households in extreme poverty with children under 16 years old, adults over 65 years old and people with disabilities.
Geographic scale: National
Targeting method: 1) Geographical: Based on the cartographic information of the National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (INEC) and the Unsatisfied Basic Needs Index, census sectors are selected where the incidence of poverty exceeds 50% of households.
2) Community: In very dispersed census sectors (as in the Amazon), families are summoned through a local authority to go to a public place and provide the information required for the Social Registry.
3) Proxy means test: Households whose Welfare Index classifies them in condition of extreme poverty (value lower than 28,2 in 2015).
4) Categorical: Selection criteria (families in extreme poverty with children under 16, adults over 65 and people with disabilities).
Instrument of selection: Social Registry (Ex-SELBÉN)
Registry of recipients: Database of active beneficiaries for payment (from MIES) and Single Registry of Beneficiaries of the Interconnected Registry of Social Programs (RIPS) (from MCDS).
Exit strategies or criteria: Loss of eligibility. Recertification every 5 years.
   

Institutionality

Legal framework: Executive Decree No.347-A /2003; Executive Decree No.12 /2007; Executive Decree No.1824 /2006; Executive Decree No. 1838/2009; Executive Decree No. 129 of august 23, 2017.
Responsible organization(s): Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion (MIES)
Executing organization(s): Undersecretariat of Non-Contributory Insurance, Contingencies and Operations attached to the Vice Ministry of Economic Inclusion of the Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion (MIES). The Undersecretary of Family is in charge of the implementation of the Family Support component for BDH users
Responsible organization(s) for the registry of recipients: The Social Registry and the Directorate of the Interconnected Registry of Social Programs was transfered in 2017 to the National Secretariat of Planning and Development (SENPLADES) (Executive Decree No. 129 of August 23, 2017). Previously, the Coordinating Ministry for Social Development (MCDS) was the body responsible for the Social Registry and the Single Registry of Beneficiaries of the Interconnected Registry of Social Programs (RIPS). The Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion (MIES) is responsible for applying the selection criteria, based on the Social Registry, and compiling the Database of active beneficiaries for payment.
Source of funding: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). Currently only the National Government.
   

1) BDH (Bono de Desarrollo Humano / Human Development Grant)

Recipient(s): Children under 16 years old
Mode of transfer: Flat transfer
Mode of delivery: Cash withdrawal, magnetic/debit card
Periodicity of delivery: Monthly
Recipient of the transfer: Mother
Maximum per household: Up to US $ 150, depending on the number of children in the household.
Conditionalities: -Education: Children between 5 and 17 years of age must be enrolled in school and have 75% of attendance. Children under 15 years of age should not perform any kind of work.
-Health: Women in pregnancy should register five prenatal medical checkups in any Health Center of the Ministry of Public Health (MSP). Specifically, pregnant women must register two controls during the first four-month period; two controls during the second quarter and one in the final period of pregnancy.
Children under the age of one year must be brought by the representative of the family to at least six medical check-ups in any MSP Health Center. Specifically, there should be two controls from zero to four months of age, two controls from five to eight months of age, and two controls from nine to twelve months of age.
Children between one and five years of age must be brought by the representative of the family to at least two annual checks to any Health Center of the MSP.
Women and men members of families recipients of the BDH, who are of childbearing age, should attend a family planning talk in any Health Center of the MSP, at least once a year.
-Housing: Those who receive the BDH must refrain from building all types of buildings in flood zones, mudslides, or invasion areas.
Sanctions: -Education: If there is non-compliance with the enrollment, 50% of the payment of the transfer will be reduced; whereas if the attendance to classes is not met, the payment of the transfer will be permanently suspended.
-Health: If there is a first breach, it will be warned through the receipt of payment. If there is a second breach, the payment will be reduced by 20%. If there is a third breach, the payment will be reduced by 40%. If there is a fourth breach, the payment will be permanently suspended.
Comments: As of 2018, a variable component was established based on the number of minor children in the household.
Depending on the conformation of the household, the amount of the transfer will be up to a maximum of USD 150 per month (Executive Decree No. 99).
Amount : US$ 50 monthly ; see Data Excel format

 

2) Pensión personas con discapacidad (Disability pension)

Recipient(s): Poor people with 40% or more disability (credited with CONADIS ID)
Mode of transfer: Flat transfer
Mode of delivery: Cash withdrawal, magnetic/debit card
Periodicity of delivery: Monthly
Recipient of the transfer: Direct beneficiary
Maximum per household: Does not have
Conditionalities: Does not have
Sanctions: Does not have
Amount : US$ 50 monthly; see Data Excel format

 

3) Pensión adultos mayores (Elderly pension)

Recipient(s): Adults over 65 years without social security
Mode of transfer: Flat transfer
Mode of delivery: Cash withdrawal, magnetic/debit card
Periodicity of delivery: Monthly
Recipient of the transfer: Direct beneficiary
Maximum per household: Does not have
Conditionalities: Does not have
Sanctions: Does not have
Comments: The amount of the transfer increased from US $ 50 to US $ 100 as of 2018 (Executive Decree No. 99).
Amount : US$ 100 monthly; see Data Excel format

 

4) Family support

Recipient(s): Families in a situation of poverty and extreme poverty who receive the Human Development Grant with a variable component.
Conditionalities: -Health: preventive controls for children under 5 years of age, prenatal checkups and sexual and reproductive health consultation (Family Planning)
Education: enrollment in the educational system, school attendance and eradication of child labor.
Comments: This component has a duration of 18 months of accompaniment.
The family plan is worked through 8 areas or dimensions of family development: identification, health, education, income and work, specialized social protection, habitability, family dynamics, justice and rights. Each dimension works pre-established objectives by the program called Basic Conditions of Family Development. There are 29 conditions to work with the family and 6 information, promotion and awareness conditions that contribute to its fulfillment.
Description: This component seeks to generate internal changes and the joint responsibility of families to the services provided by the State; and to help overcome the economic, social and psychological barriers that impede their social mobility.
Its components are
i) Psychosocial component - home and group visits (capacity building and services of reference)
ii) Community Component (community meetings)
iii) Economic Inclusion Component (access to the Human Development Credit).

 

Long-Term Impacts of Conditional Cash Transfers: Review of the Evidence

Author: Millán, T. M., Barham, T., Macours, K., Maluccio, J. A., & Stampini, M.
Date: 2019
Publication info: The World Bank Research Observer, 34(1), 119–159
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

The effect of welfare payments on work: Regression discontinuity evidence from Ecuador

Author: Bosch, M. and Schady, N
Date: 2019
Publication info: Journal of Development Economics
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

The impact of exposure to cash transfers on education and labor market outcomes

Author: Paredes-Torres, T.
Date: 2017
Publication info: Munich Personal RePEc Archive. MPRA Paper No. 79008
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Can cash transfers help households escape an inter-generational povery trap?

Author: Araújo, M. C., Bosch, M., and Schady, R.
Date: 2016
Publication info: IDB Working paper No. 767
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Cash transfers in Latin America: Effects on poverty and redistribution

Author: Amarante, V., and Brun, M.
Date: 2016
Publication info: WIDER Working Paper 2016/136
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Evaluation

 

The effect of unconditional cash transfers on adult labour supply: A unitary discrete choice model for the case of Ecuador.

Author: Mideros, A., and Odonoghue, C.
Date: 2015
Publication info: Basic Income Studies, Vol. 10(2). Pp. 225-255
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Are cash transfers made to women spent like other sources of income?

Author: Schady, N. and Rosero, J.
Date: 2007
Publication info: Policy Research Working Paper No. 4282. The World Bank.
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

The impact of positive and negative income changes on the height and weight of young children

Author: Buser, T., Ponce, J., Oosterbeek, H., Rosero, J., and Plug, E.
Date: 2014
Publication info: IZA Discussion paper No. 8130
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Financial inclusion through the Bono de Desarrollo Humano in Ecuador

Author: Samaniego, P., and Tejerina, L.
Date: 2010
Publication info: IDB Technical notes No. IDB-TN-206
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Analysis

 

The impact of a cash transfer program on cognitive achievement: The Bono de Desarrollo Humano of Ecuador

Author: Ponce, J., and Bedi, A.
Date: 2010
Publication info: IZA Discussion paper No. 3658
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

The impact of cash transfers on school enrollment: Evidence from Ecuador

Author: Oosterbek, H., Ponce, J., and Schady, N.
Date: 2007
Publication info: Working paper of the University of Amsterdam
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

The Effects of a Conditional Transfer Program on the Labor Market: The Human Development Bonus in Ecuador

Author: Gonzalez-Rosada, M., and Llerena-Pinto, F.
Date: 2011
Publication info: IZA Working Paper
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Effect of Ecuador’s cash transfer program (Bono de Desarrollo Humano) on child development in infants and toddlers: A randomized effectiveness trial

Author: Fernald, L., and Hidrobo, M.
Date: 2011
Publication info: Social Science & Medicine Vol. 72 pp. 1437-1446
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation

 

Poverty Alleviation and Child Labor

Author: Edmond, Eric V.s and Schady, Norbert
Date: 2012
Publication info: American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 2012, 4(4): 100–124
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impacts in child labour

 

Ecuador: análisis de la contribución de los programas sociales al logro de los objetivos del Milenio.

Author: Naranjo, M.
Date: 2008
Publication info: Project document ECLAC, United Nations
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impact evaluation on poverty reduction

 

Cash transfers, conditions, school enrollment, and child work : evidence from a randomized experiment in Ecuador

Author: Schady, Norbert and María Caridad Araujo
Date: 2006
Publication info: Policy Research Working Paper Series (3930), World Bank [online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Impacts in Education - Impacts in child labour

 

Does money matter? The effects of cash transfers on child health and development in rural Ecuador

Author: Paxson, Christina and Norbert Schady
Date: 2007
Publication info: Policy Research Working Paper Series (4226), World Bank [online]
Link: See Webpage
Topic: Evaluation - Health

 

 

 

Cooperation with:


 
© United Nations - ECLAC - Social Development Division